The wood industry is the industry concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and the production of primary wood products (e.g. furniture) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry.

Lumber and wood products, including timber for framing, plywood, and woodworking, are created in the wood industry from the trunks and branches of trees through several processes, commencing with the selection of appropriate logging sites and concluding with the milling and treatment processes of the
harvested material.

Chemical Treatment of Timber

There are three principal varieties of wood preservatives available at the moment, and they are: waterborne preservatives, oil-borne preservatives, and light organic solvent preservatives.

The main chemicals used for treatment are Chlorpyrifos and Bifenthrin.

In a typical pressure treatment process, wood is placed in a horizontal cylinder. The cylinder is flooded with the chemical followed by a cycle of pressure and vacuum.

The tank is filled with the chemical while the initial pressure is held on the charge. Later, the pressure is increased to 140-150 psi and held for several hours. Next the pressure on the cylinder is relieved before applying a final vacuum to clean the excessive chemical on the surface

Seasoning of Timber

By seasoning of timber, it is understood that the controlled reduction of moisture from the wood.

This is necessary for reducing the unnecessary weight of timber, for effecting an increase in its strength, to improve its workability, to reduce the possibility of development of shrinkage defects and to ensure durability or long life of timber.

The moisture content of standing trees may be as high as 40-60 percent or even more.

After careful seasoning, it could be brought down to 4-6 percent by (kiln seasoning) or 14-16 percent by (air seasoning).

Two general methods of seasoning of timber as applied today are Air seasoning and Kiln seasoning.

In air seasoning, timber in properly cut forms is stacked in a proper manner in the open air for losing moisture by process of evaporation.

In kiln seasoning, timber is dried for specific periods and under very controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in specially designed kilns.

Objectives of Chemical Treatment and Seasoning of Timber.

We may summarize the objectives in five sentences:

  • Reduces much of the useless weight of timber
  • Increases its strength considerably
  • Improves the workability of the timber
  • Decreases the chances of development of shrinkage defects, and,
  • Increases the life of timber, i.e. makes it more durable.
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